The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) re: Produced Water, states:
“States, local governments and shale gas operators seek to manage produced water in a way that protects surface and ground water resources and, if possible, reduces future demands for fresh water.  By pursuing the pollution prevention hierarchy of “Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle” these groups are examining both traditional and innovative approaches to managing shale gas produced water.”
An overview of the federal activity related to PRODUCED WATER can be found here – LINK HERE.
NETL also points out that, “Steadily growing demand for energy requires greater water use and consumption of often scarce freshwater resources.”
The 98th Meridian Foundation is supporting dialogue and discovery in Texas that creates sustainable supply-demand solutions in support of the, WATER-ENERGY-LAND NEXUS.